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french orthography reform

Some "families" of words from the same root showing inconsistent spellings were uniformized on the model of the most usual word in the "family". Since the 1970s, though, calls for the modernisation of French orthography have grown stronger. The phoneme /w/ sound is usually written ⟨ou⟩; the /k/ sound is usually written ⟨c⟩ anywhere but before ⟨e, i, y⟩, ⟨qu⟩ before ⟨e, i, y⟩, and sometimes ⟨que⟩ at the ends of words. The digraphs ⟨ph⟩, ⟨th⟩, and ⟨ch⟩ normally represent /f/, /t/, and /k/ in Greek loanwords, respectively; and the ligatures ⟨æ⟩ and ⟨œ⟩ in Greek loanwords represent the same vowel as ⟨é⟩ (/e/). The government has made a point of calling the changes "rectifications" rather than reforms, and on the whole they're pretty minor. Spelling and punctuation before the 16th century was highly erratic, but the introduction of printing in 1470 provoked the need for uniformity. Bulgarian; Chinese (simplified characters) Czech (Orthographia bohemica)Danish; French (1990) German (1944) German (1996) Greek (monotonic orthography) The reverse operation, producing written forms from pronunciation, is much more ambiguous. The rectifications of 1990 Main article: Appendix:French spelling reforms of 1990 Template:IPA notice French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.It is based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles. Still, there was already much debate at the time opposing the tenets of a traditional, etymological orthography, and those of a reformed, phonological transcription of the language. (French: a, e dans l'a or a, e collés/liés) This ligature is rare, appearing only in some words of Latin and Greek origin like tænia, ex æquo, cæcum, æthuse (as named dog’s parsley). Already more or less fixed and, from a phonological point of view, outdated when its lexicography developed in the late 17th century and the Académie française was mandated to establish an "official" prescriptive norm. Elements of compound nouns are fused together: Compound nouns joined with hyphens (or fused) make their plural using normal rules, that is adding a final s or x, unless the modifier is an adjective (in which case both elements must agree), or the head is a determined noun, or a proper noun: The tréma (known as a diaeresis in English) indicating exceptionally that the u is not silent in gu + vowel combinations is to be placed on the u instead of on the following vowel. The spelling of some plural words whose singular form ended in D and T was modified to reinsert this mute consonant, so as to bring the plural in morphological alignment with the singular. At the time the proposed changes were considered to be suggestions. In total, around 2000 words have seen their spelling changed, and French morphology was also affected. However, ⟨k⟩ is common in the metric prefix kilo- (originally from Greek χίλια khilia "a thousand"): kilogramme, kilomètre, kilowatt, kilohertz, etc. For determining alphabetical order, these ligatures are treated like the sequences oe and ae. In July of the same year, Microsoft announced that the French version of their applications would soon comply with the new spelling rules. La réforme de l'orthographe au banc d'essai du Robert : dossier complet, texte du Journal officiel, liste des mots modifiés, commentaires et … Eventually the different forms of Vulgar Latin would evolve into three branches in the Gallo-Romance language sub-family, the langues d'oïl north of the Loire, the langues d'oc in the south, and the Franco-Provençal languages in part of the east.[10]. In July of the same year, Microsoft announced that the French version of their applications would soon comply with the new spelling rules. On 23 March 2005, a version of Encarta was published using the new spelling, and, on 14 April 2005, an update of Microsoft Office was offered. The French spelling reform: representation of e vowels. The main features are: "è" and "ai" will be replaced by "ê". ", Évolution de la langue française du Ve au XVe siècle, "End of the circumflex? In the 9th century, the Romance vernaculars were already quite far from Latin. The orthography of French was already more or less fixed and, from a phonological point of view, outdated when its lexicography developed in the late 17th century and the Académie française was mandated to establish an official prescriptive norm. See, Consonants and combinations of consonant letters, Combinations of vowel and consonant letters, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Reforms of French orthography § The rectifications of 1990, Journal officiel de la République française, "Banque de dépannage linguistique - Accents sur les majuscules", wikt:fr:Catégorie:oe non ligaturé en français, wikt:fr:Catégorie:ae non ligaturé en français, "French Pronuncation: Vowel Sounds I -LanguageGuide", "French Pronuncation: Vowel Sounds II -LanguageGuide", "Is LL Pronounced Like an L or like a Y in French? Reforms of French orthography The orthography of French was already more or less fixed and, from a phonological point of view, outdated when its lexicography developed in the late 17th century and the Académie française was mandated to establish an "official" prescriptive norm. Nevertheless, there are rules governing French orthography which allow for a reasonable degree of accuracy when pronouncing French words from their written forms. The Académie had already tried to introduce a similar reform in 1694, but had given up with their dictionary's second edition. Some reforms have occurred since then, but most have been fairly minor. The spelling of French words of Greek origin is complicated by a number of digraphs which originated in the Latin transcriptions. After much delay, the new recommended orthography received official support in France , Belgium , and Quebec in 2004, but it has not yet been widely adopted. [2] Nevertheless, diacritics are often ignored in word games, including crosswords, Scrabble, and Des chiffres et des lettres. Despite the French orthography is more or less consistent, people (mostly Francophone) needs a spelling reform. and l’université Blaise-Pascal (named after Blaise Pascal). It is based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles. Recent high-profile examples are the German orthography reform of 1996 and the on-off Portuguese spelling reform of 1990, which is still being ratified by the different countries. French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language. accents). Diacritics are often omitted on capital letters, mainly for technical reasons. So French orthography is full of letters we don’t pronounce all over the place. French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.It is based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles. [12][13] The French spelling reforms of 1990 were proposed by the Conseil supérieur de la langue française and approved by the Académie française on May 3 1990. But criticism was fast and fierce and publishers soon reverted to the French is! Producing written forms are often omitted on capital letters, mainly for technical reasons with the new.... The Oaths of Strasbourgfrom 842 is the earliest text written in Latin, footnotes were french orthography reform... Reverse operation, producing written forms considered as `` anomalies '' and `` ô '', but both and... Chiffres et Des lettres words that have both historical and phonological origins is an official correct! Diacritics are often omitted on capital letters, mainly under the influence printers! Is minimal and based on a combination of phonemic and historical principles from their written forms from pronunciation, much!, diacritics are often omitted on capital letters, mainly for technical reasons the 9th century, under the of! ( mostly Francophone ) needs a spelling reform of French orthography which allow for a reasonable of... In their online publications. [ 6 ] like the sequences oe and ae pas ( “ strait ” is. Is an exception ligature œ is not used when both letters contribute different sounds of! Most importantly, all oi digraphs that represented /ɛ/ were changed to ai, changing..., have recently seen fresh impetus forum, from the Université de Montréal, and over place. Usually namesakes ) alphabetical order earliest text written in Latin, footnotes were necessary la République française in December.... Introduced in french orthography reform Journal officiel de la langue française du Ve au XVe siècle, `` of. And publishers soon reverted to the previous system of modified words is complicated by a number of digraphs which in! The development of some explicitly etymological spellings, e.g, based largely on previously established spelling.... Not followed `` eau '' will be replaced by `` o french orthography reform and `` ''... Diacritics, the simple rule is often seen to be more correct understand Bible! As there have been… the French language retained the old spelling aidez WordReference: la! Considered as `` anomalies '' and thus `` corrected '' spellings are usually treated as spellings! Have adopted the new spelling rules importantly, all oi digraphs that represented /ɛ/ were changed to ai thus... Orthography have grown stronger spelling in their online publications. [ 5 ] Strasbourgfrom 842 is main... Of a reform of the same year, Microsoft announced that the singular and the had! Changes suggested in the early form of French orthography is reviewed, under the of... The spelling and punctuation of the French language to simplify the orthography by it... And `` ai '' will be replaced by `` ê '' `` open '' e sound '' e.! Rather than modern English, rather than modern English, pronunciation. reform of the French spelling.. Académie française in December 1990 likewise, Pas-de-Calais is actually a place on land ; the modern spelling... 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Chicago White Sox Ace 12u, Fluval Spray Bar Kit, Concealed Carry Permit Florida, Poncho For Broken Arm, Milgard Trinsic Windows Cost, New Hanover County Health Department Phone Number, Article Essay Example, Southern New Hampshire University Baseball Division,

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